Laboratory tests of blood and urine can picture and evaluate the health status of any individual. There are many reasons which can lead to results outside of the “normal range”. These results can help you detect potential problems.

Blood test results

RBC – erythrocytes (red blood cells) which carry oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body.

WBC – white blood cells that serve to defend the body from bacteria, viruses and fungi.

PLT – platelets that participate in creating a clot and stop bleeding.

Hb – hemoglobin concentrations.

Hct – proportion of blood cells or hematocrit in the total volume of blood.

MCV – average volume of red blood cells.

MCHC – mean concentration of hemoglobin in red blood cells.

RDW – distribution width of red blood cells, red blood cell sorting by size.

MTV – average mean platelet volume.


Erythrocytes (red blood cells) – normal: 3.8 to 5.8 xE12 / 1

  • Low values are usually a sign of anemia or blood loss due to bleeding.
  • Higher values can be in healthy people.

Leukocytes (white blood cells) – normal: Adults from 3.8 to 10, children 5 – 13xE9 / l

  • The result is lower than the limit value is often a sign of viral infection, a higher bacterial.

Platelets (platelets – responsible for clotting blood) – normal: 150-400 xE9 / l

  • Increased number of platelets can lead to the formation of a blood clot in the cardiovascular system.
  • Reduced by the chemotherapy, malignant disease, Hepatitis C…

Erythrocyte sedimentation – normal :2-12 mm / h mm/2h (nonspecific parameter)

  • Increased acute and chronic diseases, malignancies, a large number of diseases, inflammation…
  • Low values have diagnostic significance.

Blood – Biochemical parameters

The appearance of serum – normal: bright and light yellow

  • Can be(very muddy), indicating increased fat in the blood. Often, these results occur because the patient does not comply with the rules not to take food al least 12 hours before giving blood.
  • Serum can be red may due to hemolysis and icteric due to increased bilirubin values.

Glucose – normal: 3,5-6,1 mmol / l

  • Higher values occur in diabetics, and reduced in hypoglycaemia with different causes.


Urea – normal 1,7-8,3 mmol / l

Creatinine – normal: 62-106 men, women 44-80 umol / l

  • Elevated values occur in kidney disease. Increased urea and normal creatinine may be the result of diet rich in protein. Elevated creatinine values may be a consequence of increased physical activity or taking steroids.
  • Reduced values occur in pregnant women and women in general.


Sodium – normal: 139-154 mmol / l

  • Low values in kidney patients.

Potassium – normal: 3,8-5,3 mmol / l

  • Elevated in Kidney patients.


Uric aci – normal: 200-420 men, women 140-340 umol / L

  • Elevated values occur in gout (deposition of uric acid crystals in joints).
  • Reduced concentration have no diagnostic significance.


Cholesterol – Recommended <5.2; High> 6.2 mmol / l

HDL cholesterol (good) – recommended> 1.54; low <1.0 mmol / l

  • Diagnostic significance of a low HDL cholesterol values. In this case there is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Higher HDL cholesterol values, is better, because this cholesterol “pure” blood vessels.

LDL cholesterol (bad) – recommended <2.6; High> 4.1 mmol / l

  • Higher values usually associated with improper diet and stress. Increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, above all, atherosclerosis.

Triglycerides – recommended <1.7; High> 2.3 mmol / l

  • Higher values are usually a sign of policy failure. Do not respect not taking food 12 hours before removing the blood.
  • Low values have no diagnostic significance.


ALT – normal: 8-41 IU / I

  • Higher values indicate acute liver damage, usually caused by antibiotic therapy, soft drinks, juices …

AST – normal: 7-38 IU / I

  • Higher values indicate significant liver damage or other diseases (for example, a muscular disease).

Gamma GT – normal: Men 8-40; Women 5-35IJ / I

  • Higher values usually occur in alcoholics and are a sign of liver damage.

Bilirubin totali – normal :1,1-18, 8 umol / l

  • Elevated values occur with damage to the liver and bile tract obstruction.
  • Low values have no diagnostic significance.


Alkaline phosphatase – normal: 0-270 Adults, children up to 810 IU / I

One form of alkaline phosphatase participates in building bones.

  • Elevated values may indicate increased bone degradation and the possible development of osteoporosis. In children i the value of this parameter is increased.


S alpha-amylase – normal: 28-100 IU / I

U alpha-amylase – normal: – 0-450 IU / I

  • Elevated level indicates a disturbance in the function of the pancreas.


Iron – normal: 10,6-28,3 men, women 6,6-26,0 umol / l

Together with hemoglobin, red blood cells and the parameters that determine the morphology of red blood cells (MCV, MCH and MCHC) provide insight into the state of the bone marrow. Only iron test does not have any importance for the diagnosis of anemia.

Blood – Other parameters

Fibrinogen – normal: 2-4 g / l

It is a nonspecific parameter.

  • PovIncreased in acute and chronic diseases, malignancies, a large number of diseases, inflammation…
  • Low values have no diagnostic significance.

Proteins – normal: 66-87 g / l

  • Reduced levels, the sign of synthetic liver function damage, except in pregnancy when low values are often reported.

(PT) Prothrombrin time – normal: <1.3 INR

PT is determined in the patients before surgery and patients who are on anticoagulant therapy when the expected value is 2,0-4,5 INR.

Urine Analysis

Normal urine is clear, yellow with acid reaction. Everything that deviates from this, is a possible sign of appearing disease.

Appearance – normal: bright appearance

  • Turbid urine – indicating an increased number of leukocytes, in some inflammatory process, as well as fungi, bacteria, mucus and other elements that can be found in urine sediment.

Color – normal: yellow

  • Dark brown urine – indicating an increase in bilirubin, which is usually a sign of liver damage, or appearance of jaundice. Some people normally have an increased bilirubin, so that they look like normal urine.
  • Red urine – indicating the presence of hemoglobin, which usually indicates kidney damage, the blood appears in the urine (usually kidney stones or sand), but also in various inflammatory processes, injury.

Response – normal: acid reaction

  • Alkaline reaction – usually indicates a bacterial infection.

Relative density – reference value (for adults) from 1.012 to 1.025

  • Increased density may be a sign of diabetes, hypertension, disorders of adrenal gland hormones function, kidney damage. And occurs due to increased water loss – vomiting, diarrhea and high fever.
    Is usually reduced by the increased excretion of urine.

Proteins – Normal: negative

  • May be positive due to increased physical activity or during pregnancy, when it is not a sign of pathological changes. The appearance of protein in the urine in all other states is a sign of an inflammatory process.

Glucose – Normal: negative

  • Positive results of glucose in urine is mainly associated with increased values of this parameter in the blood (above 10 mmol / L), which usually happens in diabetics.

Urobilinogen – Normal: negative

Bilirubin – Normal: negative

  • Positive results may be a sign of liver damage or bile.

Acetone – Normal: negative

  • A positive finding is present in diabetics.

Urine Sediment

Fresh erythrocytes – Normal: negative

  • Positive are usually a sign of the presence of urinary stones or sand in the kidney and urinary tract.

Erythrocytes pale – Normal: negative

  • The most positive sign due to infection or chronic kidney disease.

Leukocytes – normal: up to 5

  • The number of leukocytes up to 50 or more than 50 (mass) is usually a sign of inflamatory process.

Epithelial cell panel – normal: small

  • These cells line the urinal tract. Their appearance in the urine to any extent no greater diagnostic significance.

Round epithelial cells – Normal: negative

  • A positive finding indicates the most damage to the kidneys.

Bacteria – Normal: negative

  • A positive finding is usually a sign of bacterial infection, and may also be the result of incorrectly taken urine – non sterile vessels.

Amorphous urates – Normal: negative

  • A positive finding no diagnostic significance.

Crystals of calcium oxalate – normal: small

  • A positive finding does not necessarily indicate disease, but may be a sign of kidney sand.

Crystals of uric acid – Normal: negative

  • A positive finding indicates a kidney disease.

Triple phosphate crystals – Normal: negative

  • Positive findings may be a sign of bacterial infection.

Mucus – normal: negative or slightly

  • A positive finding no greater diagnostic significance.

Fungi – normal: negative

  • A positive finding is the most common sign of fungal infection and can occur in diabetics.

Cylinder – Normal: negative

  • Positive findings indicate chronic renal disease.

Sperm – Normal: negative

  • A positive finding occurs in older men and indicates damage to the prostate.

Purpose of this published study is scientific information and education, it should not be used for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease. This website is designed for general education and information purposes only and does not substitute for professional medical advice, examination, diagnosis or treatment.

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