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In the world’s largest electronic medical database maintained by the U.S. government, “MEDLINE” in 2013 there were 115 scientific articles on  topic Medicinal Mushroomsand Cancer, 489 articles  on  topic  “Medicinal mushrooms”. Number of  scientific articles published on  most popular medicinal mushrooms:  Ganoderma Lucidum  (Reishi) 921, Coriolus Versicolor 302, Cordyceps Sinensis 807,  Agaricus Blazei 211,  Lentinula Edodes (Shiitake) 502, Grifola Frondosa (Maitake) 244

Clinical Trials:

Reducing the side effects: Using Immune Assist (K9 Immunity) in Cancer treatment to reduce side effects: Cancer Clinical Trial  (web page)

Immune Assist is the human grade, the same product in veterinary packaging is named K9 Immunity

[PDF] Hybridization of Cordyceps sinensis and Quality Analysis – An article on Aloha Medicinals Cordyceps from the “International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

[PDF] On The Trail of the Yak – Most compl article yet on Cordyceps

[PDF] Immuno-modulating and Anti-tumor compounds from Medicinal Mushrooms by Dr. Solomon Wasser – Great Article!

[PDF] Medicinal Properties of Substances Occuring in Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms: Current Perspective (Review) by Dr. Solomon Wasser – Another Great Article!

Medicinal Mushrooms

Official Government Publication:

Cancer Research UK: Medicinal Mushrooms: Their therapeutic properties and current medical usage with special emphasis on cancer treatments:

by Richard Sullivan MD PhD   Dr.Richard Sullivan is Professor of Cancer Policy & Global Health at Kings College London and Director of the new Kings Institute of Cancer Policy.

Table of Contents (PDF 8.87 kb)

Preamble (PDF 15.5 kb)

Chapter 1 – Introduction (PDF 36.3 kb)

Chapter 2 – The Nature of Fungi with Special Emphasis on Mushrooms  (PDF 1.41 Mb)

Chapter 3a – Medicinally Important Mushrooms Part 1 (PDF 8.12 Mb)

Chapter 3b – Medicinally Important Mushrooms Part 2 (PDF 8.75 Mb)

Chapter 3c – Medicinally Important Mushrooms Part 3 (PDF 8.33 Mb)

Chapter 4 – Technology of Mushroom Cultivation (PDF 338 kb)

Chapter 5 – Extraction, Development and Chemistry of Anti-Cancer Compounds from Medicinal Mushrooms (PDF 399 kb)

Chapter 6 – Immunomodulatory Activities of Mushroom GlucansPolysaccharide-Protein Complexes in Animals and Humans (PDF 216 kb)

Chapter 7 – The Role of Polysaccharides Derived from Medicinal Mushrooms in Cancer (PDF 133 kb)

Chapter 8 – Additional Medicinal Properties (PDF 84.2 kb)

Chapter 9 – Regulatory and Safety Criteria (PDF 67.8 kb)

Chapter 10 – Conclusions(PDF 49.5 kb)

Appendix 1 – Overview of Human Immune System (PDF 603 kb)

Appendix 2 – Standard Antitumor Activity Test (PDF 12.7 kb)

Appendix 3 – Medicinal Mushrooms and Cancer Prevention (PDF 17.0 kb)

Author Biographies (PDF 21.6 kb)

Executive Summary (PDF 32.7 kb)

Acknowledgment (PDF 6.89 kb)

Front Cover (JPG 69 kb)

Back Cover (JPG 26.29 kb)

Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC)- Founded in 1884 as the New York Cancer Hospital, Memorial SloanKettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) is one of the oldest cancer centers in the country.


Cordyceps Sinensis:

  1. Huang KC. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs, 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1999.
  2. Zhu JS, Halpern GM, Jones K. The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regime: Cordyceps sinensis, Part I. J Altern Complement Med 1998;4:289-303.
  3. Zhu JS, Halpern GM, Jones K. The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regime: Cordyceps sinensis, Part II. J Altern Complement Med 1998;4:429-57.
  4. Xu F, et al. Amelioration of cyclosporin nephrotoxicity by Cordyceps sinensis in kidney-transplant recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1995;10:142-3.
  5. Huang B, et al. Cordyceps sinensis and its fractions stimulate MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cell steroidogenesis. J Androl 2001;22:831-7.
  6. Nakamura K, et al. Inhibitory effect of Cordyceps sinensis on spontaneous liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma and B16 melanoma cells in syngeneic mice. Jpn J Pharmacol 1999;79:335-41.
  7. Chiu JH, et al. Cordyceps sinensis increases the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens in human hepatoma cell line HA22T/VGH cells. Am J Chin Med 1998;26:59-70.
  8. Li, Y. et. al. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on erythropoiesis in mouse bone marrow. Chin Med J (Engl). 1993 Apr;106(4):313-6.
  9. Huang YL, Leu SF, Liu BC, et al. In vivo stimulatory effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium and its fractions on reproductive functions in male mouse. Life Sci 2004 Jul 16;75(9):1051-62.
  10. Wu WC, Hsiao JR, Lian YY, et al. The apoptotic effect of cordycepin on human OEC-M1 oral cancer cell line. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2007 Jun;60(1):103-11.
  11. Oh JY, Baek YM, Kim SW, et al. Apoptosis of human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) and neuroblastoma (SKN-SH) cells induced by polysaccharides-peptide complexes produced by submerged mycelial culture of an entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps sphecocephala. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008 Mar;18(3):512-9.
  12. Liu WC, Wang SC, Tsai ML, et al. Protection against radiation-induced bone marrow and intestinal injuries by Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese herbal medicine. Radiat Res. 2006 Dec;166(6):900-7.
  13. Liu WC, Chuang WL, Tsai ML, et al. Cordyceps sinensis health supplement enhances recovery from taxol-induced leukopenia. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008 Apr;233(4):447-55.
  14. Kubo E, Yoshikawa N, Kunitomo M, et al. Inhibitory effect of Cordyceps sinensis on experimental hepatic metastasis of melanoma by suppressing tumor cell invasion. Anticancer Res. 2010 Sep;30(9):3429-33.
  15. Lo HC, Hsu TH, Tu ST, Lin KC. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of natural and fermented Cordyceps sinensis in rats with diabetes induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Am J Chin Med. 2006;34(5):819-32.
  16. Shi B, Wang Z, Jin H, et al. Immunoregulatory Cordyceps sinensis increases regulatory T cells to Th17 cell ratio and delays diabetes in NOD mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009 May;9(5):582-6.
  17. Ji NF, Yao LS, Li Y, et al. Polysaccharide of Cordyceps sinensis Enhances Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer H157 Cell Line. Integr Cancer Ther. 2011;10(4):359-67.
  18. Zhang Z, Wang X, Zhang Y, Ye G. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on Renal Function of Patients with Chronic Allograft Nephropathy. Urol Int. 2011;86(3):298-301.

Agaricus Blazei

    1. Fujimiya Y, Suzuki Y, Oshiman K, et al. Selective tumoricidal effect of soluble proteoglucan extracted from the basidiomycete, Agaricus blazei Murill, mediated via natural killer cell activation and apoptosis. Cancer Immunol Immunother. May 1998;46(3):147-159.
    2. Itoh H, Ito H, Amano H, et al. Inhibitory action of a (1—>6)-beta-D-glucan-protein complex (F III-2-b) isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill (“himematsutake”) on Meth A fibrosarcoma-bearing mice and its antitumor mechanism. Jpn J Pharmacol. Oct 1994;66(2):265-271.
    3. Kimura Y, Kido T, Takaku T, et al. Isolation of an anti-angiogenic substance from Agaricus blazei Murill: its antitumor and antimetastatic actions. Cancer Sci. Sep 2004;95(9):758-764.
    4. Lee YL, Kim HJ, Lee MS, et al. Oral administration of Agaricus blazei (H1 strain) inhibited tumor growth in a sarcoma 180 inoculation model. Exp Anim. Oct 2003;52(5):371-375.
    5. Mizuno M, Morimoto M, Minato K, et al. Polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei stimulate lymphocyte T-cell subsets in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. Mar 1998;62(3):434-437.
    6. Takaku T, Kimura Y, Okuda H. Isolation of an antitumor compound from Agaricus blazei Murill and its mechanism of action. J Nutr. May 2001;131(5):1409-1413.
    7. Ahn WS, Kim DJ, Chae GT, et al. Natural killer cell activity and quality of life were improved by consumption of a mushroom extract, Agaricus blazei Murill Kyowa, in gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer. Jul-Aug 2004;14(4):589-594.
    8. Gray AM, Flatt PR. Insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity of Agaricus campestris (mushroom). J Endocrinol. May 1998;157(2):259-266.
    9. Swanston-Flatt SK, Day C, Flatt PR, et al. Glycaemic effects of traditional European plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. Diabetes Res. Feb 1989;10(2):69-73.
    10. Kim YW, Kim KH, Choi HJ, et al. Anti-diabetic activity of beta-glucans and their enzymatically hydrolyzed oligosaccharides from Agaricus blazei. Biotechnol Lett. Apr 2005;27(7):483-487.
    11. Hsu CH, Liao YL, Lin SC, et al. The mushroom Agaricus Blazei Murill in combination with metformin and gliclazide improves insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Altern Complement Med. Jan-Feb 2007;13(1):97-102.
    12. Liu Y, Fukuwatari Y, Okumura K, et al. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Jun 2008;5(2):205-219.
    13. Hsu CH, Hwang KC, Chiang YH, et al. The mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill extract normalizes liver function in patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Altern Complement Med. Apr 2008;14(3):299-301.
    14. Mukai H, Watanabe T, Ando M, et al. An alternative medicine, Agaricus blazei, may have induced severe hepatic dysfunction in cancer patients. Jpn J Clin Oncol. Dec 2006;36(12):808-810.
    15. Suehiro M, Katoh N, Kishimoto S. Cheilitis due to Agaricus blazei Murill mushroom extract. Contact Dermatitis. May 2007;56(5):293-294.
    16. Dong S, Furutani Y, Suto Y, et al. Estrogen-like activity and dual roles in cell signaling of an Agaricus blazei Murrill mycelia-dikaryon extract. Microbiol Res. Oct 17 2011.
    17. Takimoto H, Wakita D, Kawaguchi K, et al. Potentiation of cytotoxic activity in naive and tumor-bearing mice by oral administration of hot-water extracts from Agaricus brazei fruiting bodies. Biol Pharm Bull. Mar 2004;27(3):404-406.
    18. Yuminamochi E, Koike T, Takeda K, et al. Interleukin-12- and interferon-gamma-mediated natural killer cell activation by Agaricus blazei Murill. Immunology. Jun 2007;121(2):197-206.
    19. Gao L, Sun Y, Chen C, et al. Primary mechanism of apoptosis induction in a leukemia cell line by fraction FA-2-b-ss prepared from the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill. Braz J Med Biol Res. Nov 2007;40(11):1545-1555.
    20. Jin CY, Moon DO, Choi YH, et al. Bcl-2 and caspase-3 are major regulators in Agaricus blazei-induced human leukemic U937 cell apoptosis through dephoshorylation of Akt. Biol Pharm Bull. Aug 2007;30(8):1432-1437.
    21. Su ZY, Tung YC, Hwang LS, et al. Blazeispirol A from Agaricus blazei fermentation product induces cell death in human hepatoma Hep 3B cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. J Agric Food Chem. May 11 2011;59(9):5109-5116.
    22. Akiyama H, Endo M, Matsui T, et al. Agaritine from Agaricus blazei Murrill induces apoptosis in the leukemic cell line U937. Biochim Biophysica Acta. May 2011;1810(5):519-525.
    23. Engdal S, Nilsen OG. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by herbal remedies frequently used by cancer patients. Phytother Res. 2009 Jul;23(7):906-12.
    24. Lee JS, Hong EK. Agaricus blazei Murill enhances doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by NFκB-mediated increase of intracellular doxorubicin accumulation. Int J Oncol. 2011 Feb;38(2):401-8.
    25. Lima CU, Souza VC, Morita MC, Chiarello MD, Karnikowski MG. Agaricus blazei Murrill and inflammatory mediators in elderly women: a randomized clinical trial. Scand J Immunol. 2012 Mar;75(3):336-41.

    Inonotus Obliquus /Chaga/

    1. ^ Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát 1942″. MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
    2. ^ Needham, Arthur (2005-12-16). “Clinker Polypore, Chaga”. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
    3. ^ Muma, Walter. “True Tinder Fungus”. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
    4. ^ Youn, Myung-Ja; Kim, JK; Park, SY; Kim, Y; Kim, SJ; Lee, JS; Chai, KY; Kim, HJ; Cui, MX; So, HS; Kim, KY; Park, R (2008). “Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus ) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells”. World Journal of Gastroenterology 14 (4): 511–7. doi:10.3748/wjg.14.511. PMC 2681140. PMID 18203281.
    5. ^ “Chaga Mushroom”. Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center. 18 July 2011. Retrieved August 2013.
    6. ^
      • Rzymowska, J (1998). “The effect of aqueous extracts from Inonotus obliquus on the mitotic index and enzyme activities”. Bollettino chimico farmaceutico 137 (1): 13–5. PMID 9595828.
      • Mizuno, Takashi; Zhuang, Cun; Abe, Kuniaki; Okamoto, Hidehumi; Kiho, Tadashi; Ukai, Shigeo; Leclerc, Sophie; Meijer, Laurent (1999). “Antitumor and Hypoglycemic Activities of Polysaccharides from the Sclerotia and Mycelia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) Pil. (Aphyllophoromycetideae)”. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 1 (4): 301. doi:10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v1.i4.20.
    7. ^ Cui, Y; Kim, DS; Park, KC (2005). “Antioxidant effect of Inonotus obliquus”. Journal of ethnopharmacology 96 (1–2): 79–85. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.08.037. PMID 15588653.
    8. ^
      • Kim, Yong Ook; Han, Sang Bae; Lee, Hong Woen; Ahn, Hyo Jung; Yoon, Yeo Dae; Jung, Joon Ki; Kim, Hwan Mook; Shin, Chul Soo (2005). “Immuno-stimulating effect of the endo-polysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus”. Life Sciences 77 (19): 2438–56. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.02.023. PMID 15970296.
      • Kim, Yong Ook; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Jong Hoon; Lee, Jae Young; Moon, Seong Hoon; Shin, Chul Soo (2006). “Anti-cancer effect and structural characterization of endo-polysaccharide from cultivated mycelia of Inonotus obliquus”. Life Sciences 79 (1): 72–80. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.12.047. PMID 16458328.
    9. ^
      • Park, Young-Mi; Won, Jong-Heon; Kim, Yang-Hee; Choi, Jong-Won; Park, Hee-Juhn; Lee, Kyung-Tae (2005). “In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract of Inonotus obliquus”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 101 (1–3): 120–8. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.04.003. PMID 15905055.
      • Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Kang, Ju-Hee; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung (2012). “Orally administered aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus ameliorates acute inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 143 (2): 524–32. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2012.07.008. PMID 22819687.
    10. ^ a b Zheng, W. F.; Liu, T.; Xiang, X. Y.; Gu, Q. (July 2007). “Sterol composition in field-grown and cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus”. Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica 42 (7): 750–756. PMID 17882960.
    11. ^ Zheng W, Miao K, Liu Y, Zhao Y, Zhang M, Pan S et al. (2010). “Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production”. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87 (4): 1237–54. doi:10.1007/s00253-010-2682-4. PMID 20532760.
    12. ^ Zheng, W. F. (July 2008). “Phenolic compounds from Inonotus obliquus and their immune-stimulating effects”. Mycosystema 27 (4): 574–581.
    13. ^ Müllauer, Franziska (2011). Betulinic Acid Induced Tumor Killing.
    14. ^ a b Paper with background on extraction processes
    15. ^ Rhee, S.Y. (2008). “A comparative study of analytical methods for alkali-soluble β-glucan in medicinal mushroom, Chaga (Inonotus obliquus)”. LWT – Food Science and Technology 41 (3): 545–549.
    16. Smith JE, Rowan NJ, Sullivan R Medicinal Mushrooms: Their Therapeutic Properties and Current Medical Usage with Special Emphasis on Cancer Treatments, 2001
    17. Cristina Lull, Harry J. Wichers, and Huub F. J. Savelkoul “Antiinflammatory and Immunomodulating Properties of Fungal Metabolites”, Wageningen University and Research Center, The Netherlands 2005
    18. Ulrike Lindequist, Timo H. J. Niedermeyer, and Wolf-Dieter Jülich ” The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms”, Oxford University Press 2005
    19. Andrea T. Borchers, Anita Krishnamurthy, Carl L. Keen, Frederick J. Meyersà, and M. Eric Gershwin “Immunobiology of Mushrooms”, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 2008

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